Erich August Puttkammer, employed at the Rotterdamse Bankvereniging, sold Jews exemptions from deportation (known as Sperre) in return for large sums of money (or jewellery).

Puttkammer was trusted by the Nazis, who hoped this system would lead them to hidden Jewish assets not surrendered to the Liro Bank. The promise of protection proved to be a scam. Nearly everyone with a Puttkammer Sperre was later deported

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