Anti-Jewish measures


The entire list of measures that were promulgated by the German occupying forces from May 1940 onwards to deprive Jews of their rights and property.

Following the occupation of the Netherlands in May 1940, the German authorities imported the ideas of National Socialism. This included the Nuremberg Race Laws, which defined who was deemed to be Jewish. The anti-Jewish measures were introduced gradually. The Jewish Council was instructed to publicize these measures to the Jewish community in the weekly periodical Het Joodsche Weekblad.

The following list gives some of these measures:

05-10-40 All public servants were instructed to sign a so-called Aryan Declaration. Jews were dismissed from their positions.
10-01-41 All Jews were required to register with the German authorities.
13-02-41 The Jewish Council was established.
12-03-41 Jewish companies were placed under the supervision of a Verwalter or Treuhänder.
31-03-41 The Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung (‘Central Office for Jewish Emigration’) was set up.
08-08-41 All financial assets (cash, stocks and shares etc.), works of art and real estate belonging to Jews had to be reported to the German Liro Bank.
01-09-41 Jewish children were forced to leave the regular school system.
15-09-41 Jews were no longer allowed to visit parks, zoos, cafés and bars, restaurants, hotels, theatres, cinemas, sports facilities, public libraries or museums. The owners of all such places were required to place a sign ‘Verboden voor Joden’ (‘No Jews allowed’) at the entrance.
07-11-41 Jews were no longer allowed to travel or move house without a travel permit.
10-01-42 Unemployed Jews were set to work in 50 Jewish labour camps in the Netherlands.
23-01-42 Every Jew had a letter ‘J’ stamped on his or her personal identification card.
02-05-42 All Jews were required to wear a yellow Jewish star bearing the word ‘Jew’ in a visible place on their clothing.
26-06-42 The beginning of the deportations to the east. Westerbork started to be used as a transit camp.
17-07-42 Jews were only allowed to go to the shops between 3 and 5 p.m.
04-1943 Jews were no longer allowed to live in provincial areas. They had to move to a few designated large cities.
12-1943 According to an official declaration, there were no longer any Jews living in the Netherlands. Any Jews still living in hiding were tracked down.

A comprehensive overview of the measures may be found on the website of the Dutch Resistance Museum in Amsterdam.

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